Ancient Japan through Harima no Kuni Fudoki

To the Reader / 読者のみなさんへ

Table of contents

The Historical Institute of Hyogo Prefecture was established in Hyogo Prefectural Museum of History in April, 2015. Three research groups were set up, including Harima no kuni fudoki – “Records of the Local Customs of Harima Province” Research Group. Since then, several specialists of history and archaeology have been collaborating to conduct research on the Fudoki. The results of our research were published in November, 2021, as a book entitled Harima no Kuni Fudoki no Kodaishi (Kobe Shimbun Publishing Center).
This Japanese book consists of 38 individual articles, and the authors belong to the following organisations: the Historical Institute of Hyogo Prefectural Museum of History, the Hyogo Prefectural Museum of Archeology, the Shimane Prefectural Ancient Culture Center and the Awaji Island Japan Heritage Committee. Also some other colleagues who have been pursuing the regional history of Ancient Japan for a long time contributed to the writing. Each article is self-contained and written in an easy-to-understand format for readers.
Immediately after the publication of this book, we received a request from Dr. Edwina Palmer, a scholar of Japanese Studies, to translate each of the articles it contains into English as part of the international dissemination of Japanese studies. She is the author of Harima Fudoki―A Record of Ancient Japan Reinterpreted, Translated, Annotated, and with Commentary, which was published in 2016 as a monograph in the series of Brill’s Japanese Studies Library, Netherlands. It was the first such monograph entirely dedicated to translating the text of Harima Fudoki into English. Through its publication, our institute got acquainted with her. Therefore we welcomed this offer and arranged with her to translate all articles into English one by one, exchanging drafts regarding the names of archaeological sites and places mentioned in the Fudoki by means of internet correspondence between Japan and New Zealand. We were delighted to obtain permission from the Kobe Shimbun General Publishing Center to upload the English version of this book on our website.
After this long-term collaboration, the English version of Harima no Kuni Fudoki no Kodaishi is launched through the Museum’s website as Ancient Japan through Harima no Kuni Fudoki.
We look forward to receiving comments and reviews from readers both in Japan and abroad.
Finally, we would like to express our sincere gratitude to Dr. Edwina Palmer for her devoted efforts in translating and annotating.



Preface / はじめに

This book aims to inform the general public about the research being conducted by the Harima no Kuni Fudoki Research Group of The Historical Research Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture, (hereafter abbreviated to ‘the Institute’) which was founded by Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of History in April of 2015.
The research group currently comprises ten people, among whom the researchers of historical sources have been collaborating since the beginning of the year 2000. The position they took then was twofold: to work in close cooperation with local government officers and private research groups in local areas, and to actively conduct fieldwork and ethnological surveys. Based on these, we were able to publish Fudoki kara miru kodai no Harima [Ancient Harima, as seen through Fudoki] (Sakae Wataru (ed.), Kōbe Shimbun Sōgō Shuppan Sentā) in 2007. The present monograph aims to publicise the knowledge we have gained in the interim. But the two principles noted above remain as important as ever to our research.
Harima no Kuni Fudoki (hereafter Harima Fudoki) is one of the administrative reports compiled in each of the provinces upon receiving orders from the government in 713 CE for its compilation and submission to higher authorities. The so-called fudoki for five provinces are extant: Hitachi, Izumo, Bungo, and Hizen, in addition to Harima. Of these, the text of Harima Fudoki is regarded as having been written by 716. But the Sanjō Nishi family scroll which belonged to a family of courtiers in Kyōto is believed to be the sole manuscript copy, and it only became known about towards the end of the Tokugawa period. Tales about the origins of place names are contained in it for a total of ten kōri, excluding those for Akō and Akashi Kōri. These amount to more than 360 place name origin stories, and they contain vivid fragments of local myths, and tales that reflect what life was like in Harima under the rule of the Yamato Court in the fifth to seventh centuries. We outlined the content and the establishment and transmission of copies in the ‘Overview’ at the end of Fudoki kara miru kodai no Harima, to which we refer you for further details.
The present volume comprises thirty-eight essays that elucidate Harima Fudoki through the historical literature and archaeology. The seventeen authors represent a colourful lineup, including our collaborative institution of Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of Archaeology, members of Shimane Prefectural Centre of Ancient Culture and the Awaji Island Japan Heritage Committee, and friends who have long been involved in local history research—apart from the members of the Institute themselves.
During the Covid pandemic we were no longer able to meet in person, but over the course of about sixteen months we held a total of twenty-six online meetings. We did not always reach agreement among authors about their interpretations of history or sources, and responsibility for the content of each essay lies with its author himself. But we are confident that we are presenting the most recent results of research in each of the fields included.
In Chapter 1 “Harima and the Yamato Court”, we have collected together essays on the political history of ancient Harima. In this field, we have greatly advanced our understanding of control over Harima by the Yamato polity from the fifth to seventh centuries through such aspects as the traffic in Tatsuyama stone, reconsideration of the kuni no miyatsuko system and miyake, and how to interpret the Great Deity of Iwa. This chapter contains ten such essays.
Chapter 2 is titled “Roads in Harima and interregional transportation”. We wrote on the theme of “Transport and interregional transportation” in Chapter 6 of Fudoki kara miru kodai no Harima, so in the present chapter we have gathered essays specifically related to ‘Harima’s roads’. We have turned our attention not only to official roads (kandō) under the ritsuryō system, but also to the ancient customary roads of preceding times; and clarified aspects of regional development based on identifying where roads went and the various transportation routes. Some of these contributions were stimulated by the research results published in Hyōgo Rekishi Kenkyūshitsu Kiyō [Bulletin of The Historical Research Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture], No. 6, 2021, on the theme of ‘Harima’s roads’.
We have one major premise for Chapter 3, “The Coast of Ōsaka Bay and the ama people of Awaji Island”. The Harima no Kuni Fudoki Research Group has been collaborating with Awaji Island Japan Heritage Committee since 2017, and we have been conducting joint research into the ama people and myths of ancient Awaji Island. The essays contained in this chapter are the result of that research. It has become apparent that the ama people were a community that were mobile over a large area, and were allied with Yamato’s power over the regions in each period.
In Chapter 4, “Local lifestyle and Harima’s religious festivals”, we deal with life under harsh environmental conditions in ancient times, the role that rituals and festivals played regarding marriage and reproduction at the time, the history of battling against epidemics and natural disasters, and the reality of ritual in Harima from the archaeological record.
Incidentally, apart from one tale in the entry in Harima Fudoki referring to the ‘stone deity’ of Kami Island, there is absolutely no information at all about Buddhism or Buddhist temples. This is in stark contrast to Izumo no Kuni Fudoki, which even records whether or not there was a resident Buddhist priest and who the founder of the temple was. Nevertheless, the remains of several Hakuhō period [673–686 CE] Buddhist temples have been identified in the Harima region, and there is the well-known entry in Nihon Shoki in which the reinstated priest of Harima Eben appears. It is indisputable that Buddhism had become widespread and penetrated deeply into Harima Province. So Chapter 5 “Ancient temples and Buddhism in Harima” takes up this theme, and presents the latest results of research into three related fields: the history of Buddhist sculpture, Buddhist literature and archaeology.
Next, fundamental results have moved apace in research into Harima Fudoki within the field of Japanese literature. Edwina Palmer, a scholar of Japanese literature in New Zealand, has reevaluated Harima Fudoki as ‘oral literature’, and appraises it as having ‘world heritage’ value. Likewise the history of the reception of Harima Fudoki research is being furthered. This means not only examining how we treat the history of Fudoki around the time it was written in the Nara period, but also how copies of it were received and transmitted in later times, from the Middle Ages through to the end of the Edo period and into the modern era. We are steadily gaining understanding about the society and ideology, and the existence of personal communications and networks regarding Harima Fudoki in each historical time period. Chapter 6, “The ancient period in Harima and written sources” presents essays related to this.
The essays in this volume can be read as stand-alone articles or starting from anywhere in the book. But we would be delighted if you would read the whole, while deepening your understanding of, and familiarity with, the Harima region. We hope that local residents will call upon Harima Fudoki to help revitalise their communities.

Wataru SAKAE
Coordinator of Research, The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture, Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of History.

October 2021

Explanatory Notes / 凡例と郡別マップ

Explanatory notes to the Japanese text

  • Where necessary, furigana (phonetic gloss) has been added to historical terminology, place names, etc., the first time they appear in each of the articles. In principle, these are in modern kana usage, but in some proper nouns they have followed customary usage. e.g., 揖保 Ihibo, 品太天皇 King Homuda.
  • The title Harima no Kuni Fudoki appears frequently in the text, so it has been abbreviated throughout to Harima Fudoki, except for first mention and in headings. Likewise, Izumo Fudoki, Hizen Fudoki, etc., denotes Izumo no Kuni Fudoki, Hizen no Kuni Fudoki.
  • Similarly, Kojiki and Nihon Shoki are abbreviated to Ki 記 and Ki 紀 respectively in the Japanese text, or Kiki referring to both, except upon first mention or in headings.
  • The orthography (i.e., the Chinese-style characters used for the writing) of place names in Harima Province varies a great deal, so in principle we have followed those of their appearance in Harima no Kuni Fudoki. However, this is not necessarily so in the case of quotations from other sources.
▲ Map of Kōri in the Province of Harima
  • In the case of quotations originally in kanbun text, these have been rendered into kakikudashibun.
  • Bibliographic references have been included together at the end of the volume.

Explanatory notes to the English translation

The aim of this book was to make recent findings about the history and archaeology associated with Harima Fudoki accessible to a general readership in Japan, rather than to a narrower scholarly audience. The translator has attempted to convey that spirit into the English translation. The authors and editors of this book hope to disseminate their research results widely overseas. Not only that, but they would also welcome your thoughts, feedback and criticism. There is more than one way of transcribing Modern Japanese, and even less agreement on how to transcribe Old Japanese. For ease of a general readership, the present translation ignores kō-otsu distinctions and the p/F/h phonetic transitions, etc. It mostly conforms to the conventions of modern Japanese. In other words, the transcription more or less follows the way in which these words may be pronounced by a modern Japanese speaker/reader.

  • Japanese words, where helpful, are rendered in Hepburn style with macrons for long vowels.
  • The final -n of Modern Japanese is transcribed as -n, except where it appears both before a -b and has been preferred and become established by a particular person/institution, e.g., Kōbe Shimbun, Yoshifumi KAMBE.
  • Upon first mention in a given text, the title of Harima no Kuni Fudoki is provided in full; thereafter it is usually abbreviated to Harima Fudoki. The same principle applies to the fudoki of other provinces, e.g., Izumo no Kuni Fudoki.
  • Proper nouns (names of places and people) as a rule follow furigana as/where given in the author’s text. This may result in some inconsistency, depending on the author.
  • Place names common throughout to Harima no Kuni Fudoki are consistently standardised in translation: e.g., for ancient kōri names, Akashi, Inami, Kako, Shikama, Ihibo, Sayo, Shisawa, Kamusaki, Taka, Kamo, Minagi.
  • Names of early rulers that are often rendered as tennō or sumera mikoto in Japanese are translated as King, in accordance with recent scholarly practice.
  • Names of early rulers that are traditionally rendered with voiced consonants in Japanese are translated with pure consonants, in accordance with recent scholarly practice: e.g., Emperor Kenzō transcribed as King Kensō.
  • Upon first mention of Japanese names, family names are indicated in small capitals.
  • Names of modern scholars and archaeologists are reversed to the English order. Those for historical names are given in the conventional Japanese order, with family name first. Where given names for historical persons are conventionally used, the translation follows the form indicated by the Japanese author.
  • Where authors may have assumed prior knowledge or understanding for a Japanese readership that may not be so clear to an English-speaking reader, the translation includes explanatory footnotes. This inclusion is inevitably arbitrary, but is intended to expedite comprehension.

Contents / 38篇の論文

  1. Chapter 1. Harima and the Yamato Court

  2. Chapter 2. Roads in Harima and Interregional Transportation

  3. Chapter 3. The Coast of Ōsaka Bay and the Ama People of Awaji Island

  4. Chapter 4. Local Lifestyle and Harima’s Religious Festivals

  5. Chapter 5. Ancient Temples and Buddhism in Harima

  6. Chapter 6. The Ancient Period in Harima and Written Sources

Afterword / あとがき

It is sometimes said that ‘There is romance in history, especially in the ancient past’. These days we are overflowing with vast quantities of information every day, including from newspapers and magazines, television, radio and the internet. Amid such information overload, you can sympathise with that feeling of romance in the ancient past, about which only limited sources still remain.
However, what if you knew that the manuscripts of Kojiki, Nihon Shoki and Fudoki are full of difficult Chinese characters? I wonder how many people would still ‘feel the romance’. In that sense, I am extremely grateful to our predecessors who put in so much effort to rendering those manuscripts into modern Japanese translations. The extant Fudoki, including Harima no Kuni Fudoki, were first published as a set with annotations and commentaries in 1958 in Iwanami Shoten’s Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei [Compendium of Japanese Classical Literature] series. That prompted Fudoki to be regarded by Japanese citizens as an important shared historical written source.
The official government order for so-called Fudoki to be compiled was issued in 713 CE, and it is little short of miraculous that any copies were handed down through the Heian and Kamakura periods to the Edo period; and even more so that historical documentation of the provinces in ‘ancient times’ has become local historical heritage for the people who live in those localities ‘nowadays’.
Government officials in Hyōgo Prefecture organised events to celebrate the 1,300th anniversary of the compilation of Harima no Kuni Fudoki, for three years from 2013. These included the founding of a Harima no Kuni Fudoki Reading Group, fieldwork to visit and explore the tales, place names and sites that remain, and lectures by specialists, in addition to exhibitions at museums. A large number of citizens attended or participated. Fudoki kara miru kodai no Harima [Ancient Harima as seen through Fudoki] (2007) was published as a lead-up to those commemorations.
Then in April 2015, The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture was set up in Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of History, and a Harima no Kuni Fudoki Research Group was organised. The present monograph, ‘Harima no Kuni Fudoki’ no kodaishi [Ancient Japan through ‘Harima no Kuni Fudoki’], is the result of the group’s collaborative research, and it was carried through to publication thanks to the all-round cooperation of members both within and external to the group, through the stages of planning and drafting, under the coordination of the project leader, Wataru SAKAE. Looking back on the past seven years, it was memorable to exchange views with Edwina Palmer, the researcher in New Zealand who translated Harima no Kuni Fudoki into English. Thanks to her, it has become better known in the world at large, and we, like her, look forward to a time when Harima no Kuni Fudoki might be considered on a par with Greek mythology.
I should like to extend heartfelt thanks to all who cooperated in writing this book, all the organisations and individuals that allowed us access to important sources, and last but not least to Ms. Yōko OKA of Kōbe Shimbun Sōgō Shuppan Sentā [Kōbe Shimbun General Publications Center], who undertook to get it into print.

Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of History and The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture

Himeji, October 2021

Bibliographic Notes / 著者紹介

Translator’s note: wherever possible, the present translator has referred to English titles of 1 academic articles and journals as recorded on the CiNii website: https://cir.nii.ac.jp/, for which the present translator accepts no responsibility.

Editor-in Chief

SAKAE Wataru

Coordinator of Research, The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture, Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of History. Part-time Lecturer, Kobe Jogakuin University and Mukogawa Women’s University. Specialises in ancient Japanese history.
Conducts research into the ancient history of myths, rituals and local social history.

Selected publications
  • Fudoki kara miru kodai no Harima [Ancient Harima as seen through Fudoki], (ed.) Kobe Shinbun Sōgō Shuppan Sentā, 2007.
  • Kōbe, Hanshin kan no kodaishi [The ancient history about Kōbe–Hanshin district], (ed.) Kobe Shinbun Sōgō Shuppan Sentā, 2011.
  • Nihon kodai kokka no nōmin kihan to chiiki shakai [The scope of the peasantry and local society in the ancient state of Japan], Shibunkaku, 2016.
  • “Seizon, seishoku no iji to Nihon kodai no chiiki shakai” [“Guaranteeing survival and reproduction in local communities in ancient Japan”], Rekishigaku Kenkyū [Historical Research], No. 977, 2018.
  • “Kodai Harima no michi to tera” [“Road and temple in Harima Province in ancient times”], Hyōgo Rekishi Kenkyūshitsu Kiyō [Bulletin of The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture], No. 6, 2021.

Contributors (in alphabetical order)


Professor, Humanities Research Unit, Postgraduate Faculty, Kobe University. Visiting Researcher, The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture.
Specialises in ancient Japanese history. Researches the history of state formation and local social history.

Selected publications
  • Nihon kodai ōken no shihai ronri [The logic of rule by kingship in ancient Japan], Kashiwa Shobō, 2009.
  • Kokka keiseiki no ōkyū to chiiki shakai: KiKi, Fudoki no saikaishaku [Royal palaces and local society in the period of state formation: A reinterpretation of Kojiki, Nihon Shoki and Fudoki], Kashiwa Shobō, 2019.
  • Wakoku: Kodai kokka e no michi [Wakoku: the path to ancient state formation in Japan], Kōdansha Gendai Shinsho, 2021.

Lead researcher, Centre for Ancient Culture, Cultural Properties Section, Shimane Prefectural Board of Education.
Mainly researches history prior to the Taika Reforms, and Izumo no Kuni Fudoki and local history.

Selected publications
  • Kaisetsu Izumo no Kuni Fudoki [Izumo Fudoki with Commentary] (collaborative work), Imai Shuppan, 2014.
  • Matsue-shi shi: Tsūshihen 1 [A History of Matsue City: Historical Overview, Vol. 1], (contributor), Matsue-shi, 2015.
  • “Chiiki shakai kara mita bemin sei, kuni no miyatsuko sei, miyake sei” [“The bemin system, kuni no miyatsuko system and miyake system from the viewpoint of local society”], Rekishigaku Kenkyū [Journal of historical studies], No. 976, 2018.
IKEBUCHI Shun’ichi

Chief Coordinator, Cultural Properties Division, Department of Education, Shimane Prefectural Government Office.
Mainly researches all aspects of society in the Izumo region during the Yayoi and Kofun Periods.

Selected publications
  • Kofun jidai shi ni miru kodai Izumo seiritsu no kigen [The origins of the establishment of ancient Izumo as seen in Kofun period history], Matsue-shi Furusato Bunko 18, 2017.
  • “Tōken, hoko, yari, sokantōtō” [“Swords, halberds, lances, and plain pommelled blades”], in Kōko shiryō taikan 7: Yayoi, Kofun jidai tetsu, kondō seihin [General survey of archaeological artefacts Vol. 7: Iron and gilded bronze items of the Yayoi and Kofun periods], Shōgakukan, 2003.
  • “San’in no tekki seisan to ryūtsū” [Production and circulation of ironware in the San’in region”], Nihon Kōkogaku Kyōkai 2012 nendo Fukuoka taikai kenkyū happyō shiryōshū [Proceedings of the Japanese Archaeological Association 2012 Conference, Fukuoka], Nihon Kōgogaku Kyōkai, 2012.
  • “Ou heiya no kaihatsu shi” [“History of the development of the Ou Plain”], Zenpōkōhōfun to tōzai Izumo no seiritsu ni kan suru kenkyū [Research into rectangular mounded keyholeshaped tombs and the establishment of Eastern and Western Izumo], Shimane Kodai Bunka Sentā, 2015.
  • “Izumo heiya ni okeru 6, 7 seiki no suiri kaihatsu to sono hyōka” [“Development of 6th and 7th century irrigation on the Izumo Plain”], Kokka keiseiki no shuchōken to chiiki shakai kōzō [Chiefdoms and the structure of local society in the period of state formation], Shimane Kodai Bunka Sentā, 2019.
INOUE Katsuhiro

Part-time Lecturer, Mukogawa Women’s University.
Specialises in ancient Japanese history.

Selected publications
  • “‘Ashiya no otome’ to ‘Chinu no otoko’” [“‘The maiden of Ashiya’ and ‘The man of Chinu’”], in Sakae Wataru (ed.), Kōbe, Hanshin kan no kodaishi [The ancient history about Kōbe–Hanshin district], Kobe Shinbun Sōgō Shuppan Sentā, 2011.
  • “Yamato no atai no kyoten o megutte” [“Concerning the stronghold of the Yamato no atai”], Akashi no rekishi [The history of Akashi], No. 1, Akashi-shi, 2018.
  • “Akashi no Kuni no Miyatsuko to Nibuyama no megami” [“The Akashi no Kuni no Miyatsuko and the maiden of Nibuyama”], Akashi no Rekishi, [The History of Akashi], No. 4, Akashi-shi, 2021.
ITŌ Hiroyuki

Staff, Awaji Municipal Board of Education. Collaborating researcher, The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture.
Mainly researches Awaji Island in the Yayoi and Kofun periods through archaeology.

Selected publications
  • Higashiura-chō shi [History of Higashiura-chō], Contributor, Higashiura-chō, 2000.
  • Awaji-chō shi [Guide to Awaji-chō], Contributor, Awaji-chō, 2005.
  • “Bakumatsu kaibō shisetsu: Matsuho daiba to Matsuho minato” [“Sea defence installations at the end of the Tokugawa Period: the Matsuho battery and Matsuho port sites”], Kikan Kōkogaku [Archaeology Quarterly], No. 102, Yūzankaku, 2008.
  • “Awaji-shima ni okeru Yayoi jidai tekki seisan no yōsō” [“Aspects of Yayoi period iron production on Awaji Island”], Kodaigaku Kenkyū [Ancient Period Studies], No. 218, 2018.
  • “Awaji-shi Gossa Kaito iseki no tekki seisan ni tsuite” [“About iron tools production in Awajishi Gossakaito site”], Tatara Kenkyū [Journal of historical iron and steel], No. 57, 2018.

Researcher, Harima Research Institute. Collaborative Researcher, The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture. Member, The Society of Fudoki Research.
Mainly researches the ancient history of Harima, with special reference to Harima no Kuni Fudoki.

Selected publications
  • Iwa no ōkami zakkō” [“A study on Iwa-no-Ōkami”], Fudoki Kenkyū [Fudoki Research], No. 13, 1991.
  • “Oka Hirayasu ‘Fudoki Kō’ ni tsuite: Honkoku to kaidai” [“On Oka Hiraysu’s Fudoki Kō” The woodblock print version and its bibliography], and “Kinsei makki ni okeru ‘Harima no Kuni Fudoki’ no shosha, den katei ni tsuite” [“The copying and transmission of Harima no Kuni Fudoki at the end of the Early Modern period”], Harimagaku Kiyō [Bulletin of Harima Studies], No. 19, Harimagaku Kenkyūjo, 2016.
  • “Izuta-ke shozō Harima no Kuni Fudoki shahon chōsa gaihō” [“Survey report on the Harima Fudoki in the collection of the Izuta Family”], Hyōgo Rekishi Kenkyūshitsu Kiyō [Bulletin of The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture], No. 2, 2017.
  • “Sanjō Nishi bon ‘Harima no Kuni Fudoki’ Inami Kōri sōkijō ni tsuite” [“On the entries for Inami Kōri in the Sanjō Nishi scroll of Harima no Kuni Fudoki”], Rekishi to Kōbe [History and Kōbe], No. 338, 2020.
KAMBE Yoshifumi

Curator, Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of History. Member, The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture. Part-time Lecturer, Kansai University.
Mainly researches the history of Buddhist sculpture.

Selected publications
  • “Hyōgo Ruriji mokuzō Fudōmyō Ō zazō” [“Wooden statue of the seated King Fudōmyō (Acalanātha) in Hyōgo Ruri Temple”], MUSEUM, No. 448, 1988.
  • “Furubokke sanson butsu gan” [“The outer casing of the Furubokke trinity of stone statues”], Kokka [Flower of the Nation], No. 1215, 1997.
  • Kasai-shi shi [History of Kasai-shi], Contributor, Kasai-shi, 2003.
  • “Kinsei zenki ni okeru busshi no sedai keishō ni tsuite: Shichijō busshi, Ōsaka busshi, Harima no busshi no sakurei, kiroku ni miru” ‘[“Hereditary succession among sculptors of Buddhist art in the first half of the Early Modern period: As seen in the works and records of Buddhist sculptors in Shichijō (Kyōto), Ōsaka and Harima”], in Bukkyō bijutsu ronbunshū [Collected scholarly articles on Buddhist art], Vol. 6, (Soshikiron: Seisaku shita hitobito [Organisation: the people who produced the art works]), Chikurinsha, 2016.

Formerly Head of the Excavation Section, Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of Archaeology.
Secretary, Kiln Site Society.

Selected publications
  • Kodai yōgyō no kiso kenkyū: Suekiyō no gijutsu to keifu [Fundamental research into ancient kiln sites: The techniques and genealogy of Sue ware], Contributor, Shinyōsha, 2010.
  • “Hyōgo-ken Tajima chihō o chūshin to shita kyōzuka no gaikan” [“The Outward Appearance of sutra mounds in the Tajima district of Hyōgo Prefecture”], Kyōzuka kōkogaku ronkō [Discourse on the archaeology of sutra mounds], Iwata Shoin, 2011.
  • “‘Engi Shukeiryō Shiki’ ni mieru doki no chōnō kitei: Hinmoku kisaihō no bunseki o tōshite” [“Regulations concerning the taxation of pottery as taxes-in-kind, as seen in Vol. 24 of Engishiki: Analysis of the law codes for recording items”] , in Yamao Yukihisa (ed.), Kodai Nihon no minzoku, kokka, shisō [The People, the state and ideology in ancient Japan], Kashiwa Shobō, 2021.

Assistant Director and Head of Planning and Public Relations, Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of Archaeology. Researcher, The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture. Member, The Japanese Archaeological Association.
Mainly researches regional policy of the Kofun Period from the viewpoint of archaeology.

Selected publications
  • “Kofun jidai no Harima no michi: Ōgata kofun no ritchi kara mita Wa ōken no michi” [“Roads in Harima in the Kofun Period: The roads under the Wa sovereignty from the viewpoint of the location of large-scale burial mounds”, Hyōgo Rekishi Kenkyūshitsu Kiyō [Bulletin of The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture], No. 6, The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture, Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of History, 2021.
  • “Kofun jidai no Inamino chiiki to Kibi” [“The Inami Plain District and Kibi in the Kofun period”], Hyōgo Kenritsu Kōko Hakubutsukan Kenkyū Kiyō [Bulletin of the Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of Archaeology], No. 14, Hyōgo Kenritsu Kōko Hakubutsukan, 2021.
  • “Kofun jidai no fune” [“Boats in the Kofun period”], Haniwa no sekai: Haniwa kara kofun o yomitoku [The World of Haniwa: Interpreting burial mounds from Haniwa], Hyōgo Kenritsu Kōko Hakubutsukan,2019.
  • “Hyōgo-ken Furuouchi iseki: San’yōdō Kako no Umaya” [“The Furuouchi Site in Hyōgo Prefecture: The Kako Post Station on the Sanyōdō”], in Suzuki Yasutami, Araki Toshio, Kawajiri Akio (ed.), Nihon kodai no dōro to keikan: Umaya, kanga, tera [Roads and landscape in ancient Japan: Post stations, government offices, and Buddhist temples], Yagi Shoten, 2017.

Part-time teacher, Tezukayama Intermediate and High Schools.
Mainly researches local government organisation in ancient Japan.

Selected publications
  • “Kodai no ōmikotomochi, subeosa sei ni kan suru saikentō” [“A reinterpretation of the positions of ōmikotomochi and subeosa in ancient times’], Ritsumeikan Shigaku [Ritsumeikan Journal of History], No. 15, 1994.
  • “Hitachi no Kuni Fudoki to ritsugun kiji” [Entries about the beginnings of kōri in Hitachi no Kuni Fudoki”], Nihon Shisōshi Kenkyūkai Kaihō [Proceedings of the Conference of the Association of Japanese Intellectual History], 12, 1994.
  • “Muko Minato to Mikoshiro no Kuni” [“Muko port and Mikoshiro lands?”], in Sakae Wataru (ed.), Kōbe, Hanshin kan no kodaishi [The ancient history about Kōbe–Hanshin district], Kobe Shinbun Sōgō Shuppan Sentā, 2011.
  • “‘Fudoki’ ni okeru tennō setsuwa ni tsuite: Fudoki denshin no sozai” [“Tales of kings in Fudoki: Sources for transmission in Fudoki”], in Yamao Yukihisa (ed.), Kodai Nihon no minzoku, kokka, shisō [The people, the state and ideology in ancient Japan], Kashiwa Shobō, 2021.
ŌHIRA Shigeru

Formerly Chief Curator, Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of Archaeology. Cooperating researcher, The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture.
Researches on archaeology, mainly ritual sites and ritual objects.

Selected publications
  • Saishi kōkogaku no kenkyū [Research on the archaeology of ritual], Yūzankaku, 2008.
  • “Saishi iseki [“Ritual sites”], in Habuta Yoshiyuki, Kameda Shūichi (ed.), Kofun jidai kenkyū no genjō to kadai (ge) [The present state of research into the Kofun period, and its related issues], Vol. 2, Dōseisha, 2012.
  • Hyōgo no iseki ga kataru Matsuri no kodaishi” [The Ancient history of festivals: What sites in Hyōgo tell us], Kobe Shinbun Sōgō Shuppan Sentā, 2020.
  • “Kofun jidai no Setouchi kōro to Hyōgo-ken no saishi iseki” [“Navigation routes through the Inland Sea in the Kofun period and ritual sites in Hyōgo Prefecture”], Hyōgo Kenritsu Kōko Hakubutsukan Kenkyū Kiyō [Bulletin of the Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of Archaeology], No. 14, Hyōgo Kenritsu Kōko Hakubutsukan, 2021.
  • “Komochi magatama no saishi girei: Haji-shi kara Miwa-shi e” [“Rituals and rites involving ‘mother-and-child’ curved beads: From the Haji family to the Miwa family”], Ōmiwa, No. 141, Ōmiwa Shrine, 2021.
ŌTANI Teruhiko

Director, and Manager of Cultural Properties, Buried Cultural Properties Centre, Himeji Municipal Board of Education. Cooperating Researcher, The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture.
Specialises in Japan’s archaeology. Active in the conservation and utilisation of world heritage and historical cultural heritage.

Selected publications
  • Himeji-shi shi [History of Himeji City], Vol. 7 Part 2, Shiryōhen kōko [Sources: Archaeological], Contributor, Himeji-shi, 1990.
  • Various publications, including basic plans for cultural properties, such as “Himeji-shi rekishi bunka kihon kōsō” [Basic Concept for History and Culture in Himeji City”], Himeji-shi, 2011, and exhibition catalogues such as “Miyayama Kofun”, Himeji-shi Buried Cultural Properties Centre.

Part-time Lecturer, Ritsumei University, Kōbe University and Tenri University. Visiting Researcher, The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture.
Specialises in the history of ancient Japan: mainly the history of the ancient Japanese state through critique of Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, and ancient local history.

Selected publications
  • “Shizoku denshō to kodai ōken: Miwayama denshō o megutte” [“Family stories and ancient sovereignty: Tales of Mt. Miwa”], Rekishi Hyōron [Historical Journal], No. 611, 2001.
  • “Harima no Kuni Fudoki ni miru roku, nana seiki, Harima no chiiki shakai kōzō” [“The structure of Harima’s local society in the sixth and seventh centuries, as seen in Harima no Kuni Fudoki”], Rekishi Kagaku [Historical Sciences], Combined Issues Nos. 220 and 221, The Ōsaka Association of Historical Sciences, 2015.
  • “‘Harima no Kuni Fudoki’ Inami no Wakiiratsume denshō kara mita Inamino” [“Inamino as seen in the tale of Inamino-wake-iratsume, as written in Harima no Kuni Fudoki”], Hyōgo Rekishi Kenkyūshitsu Kiyō [Bulletin of The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture], No. 5, 2020.
  • “Kodai no Uozumi no tomari ni tsuite” [“The ancient port of Uozumi”], Akashi no Rekishi [History of Akashi], No. 3, 2020.
  • “Kodai Mishima chiiki ni okeru tochi kaihatsu to miyake” [“Land Reclamation and Miyake in the Ancient Mishima District”], in Yamao Yukihisa (ed.), Kodai Nihon no minzoku, kokka, shisō [The people, the state and ideology in ancient Japan], Kashiwa Shobō, 2021.
WADA Seigo

Director, Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of Archaeology.
Professor Emeritus, Ritsumeikan University.
Mainly researches the archaeology of the Yayoi and Kofun periods.

Selected publications
  • Kofun jidai no sōsei to takaikan [The system of burial and views of the afterlife in the Kofun period], Yoshikawa Kō Bunkan, 2014.
  • Kofun jidai no ōken to shūdan kankei [Sovereignty in the Kofun period and group relationships], Yoshikawa Kō Bunkan, 2018.
  • “Zenpōkōenfun to wa nani ka” [“What are keyhole-shaped burial mounds?”], in Yoshimura Takehiko (ed.), Shirīzu kodaishi o hiraku Zenpōkōenfun [Keyhole-shaped burial mounds: Opening up ancient history series], Iwanami Shoten, 2019.
  • “Arutai sanchū ni kurugan o tazunete” [“A visit to the kurgan burial mounds in the Altai Mountains”], Hyōgo Kenritsu Kōko Hakubutsukan Kenkyū Kiyō [Bulletin of the Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of Archaeology], No. 14, 2021.

Director, Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of History and Director, The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture.
Emeritus Professor, Kansai University.
Specialises in the Early Modern history of Japan.

Selected publications
  • Kokuso to hyakushō ikki no kenkyū [Edo period peasant uprisings], Azekura Shobō, 1992.
  • Joseishi to shite no kinsei [Early Modern Japan as women’s history], Azekura Shobō, 1996.
  • Bushi no machi ‘Ōsaka’: Tenka no daidokoro no samuraitachi [Ōsaka, city of samurai: The samurai of the ‘warehouse of the country’], Chūkō Shinsho, 2010 and Kōdansha Gakujutsu Bunko, 2020.
  • Ōsaka Isan [Ōsaka Heritage], Seibundō Shuppan, 2020.

Historical Resources Utilisation Specialist, Regional Development Division, Policy Planning and Revitalisation Department, Hyōgo Prefectural Office.
Consultant, The Historical Institute of Hyōgo Prefecture.
Part-time Lecturer, Kōbe Gakuin University.
Mainly researches local change through changes in archaeological sites in Hyōgo Prefecture.

Selected publications
  • “Kodai San’yōdō to sono umaya” [“The ancient San’yōdō and its post stations”], in Hitsumoto Sei’ichi (ed.), Fudoki no kōkogaku 1: Harima no Kuni Fudoki no maki [The archaeology of Fudoki Vol. 1: The Harima no Kuni Fudoki Scroll], Dōseisha, 1994.
  • “Kodai San’yōdō kenkyū no genjō to kadai” [“The present state of research into the ancient San’yōdō and its issues”], Hyōgo-ken kodai kandō kanren iseki chōsa hōkokusho 1 [Archaeological site reports related to ancient official roads in Hyōgo Prefecture, Vol. 1], Hyōgo Prefectural Board of Education, 2010.